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What is Jaw Reconstruction Surgery?

Written by prositesdentalFeb 27 • 4 minute read

Woman showing off her white smile and straight teeth

Jaw reconstruction, otherwise known as orthognathic surgery, is simply a method designed to correct, make adjustment to any form of jaw disabilities. Many times, problems with the bite or the alignment of the teeth can be corrected using jaw corrective methods of dental and orthodontic treatment. This is a specialized and a designed way to correct any deformity conditions of the jaw relating to the structure. There are several ways through which these deformities occur; automobile accidents being the most common. Jaw reconstruction is a process used to correct jaw problems such as: open bites, difficulty chewing, difficulty swallowing, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder pains, excessive wear of the teeth in the jaw, and receding chins. It can also be used to take care of severe orthodontic problems involving the relationship between the teeth and the jaws, including the correction of under-bites and congenital deformities related to jaw development. It will help alleviate sleep apnea, a potentially life-threatening condition.This procedure is preferred for the correction of a accidental deformity due to its high effectiveness. Sometimes, skeletal and dental irregularities aren’t so easy to take care of, even with the most advanced non-surgical techniques. 

The Benefits of the Jaw Reconstruction

People that have problems related to the jaws, tooth alignment and facial asymmetries, which create difficulties chewing, talking, sleeping, may benefit from having orthognathic surgery. These procedures can also be used to correct aesthetic issues, such as a protruding jaw, a congenital defect, or an unbalanced facial appearance. It’s occasionally the jaws themselves that should be brought into line. Much of the time, orthodontic apparatuses, for example, props and retainers, will be utilized, to ensure you have a successful outcome.

Conditions that can be treated with corrective orthognathic, jaw surgery include the following:

  • Open bite, protruding jaw or receding chin
  • Congenital defects such as the cleft palate
  • Malocclusion resulting from under-bites or severe overbites
  • Obstructive sleep apnea, when conservative methods fail
  • Difficulty swallowing, chewing or biting food
  • Chronic jaw and jaw point pain and headache
  • An unbalanced appearance from the front or side
  • Inability to make the lips meet without straining
  • Chronic mouth breathing and dry mouth

The Importance of Jaw Reconstruction

Jaw reconstruction is crucial in so many ways as it is used to make adjustment and corrections to many dental deformities such as:

  • Gross jaw discrepancies (anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse discrepancies)
  • Skeletofacial discrepancies associated with the documented sleep apnea, airway defects, and soft tissue discrepancies
  • Skeletofacial discrepancies with documented TMJ pathology

Jaw Reconstruction Procedure

As there are different cases, conditions and problems regarding jaw reconstruction, every patient’s need are different.
The first and the most essential component is consultation with the restorative or general dentist, the orthodontist, and the oral surgeon. The surgery may occur in a hospital or an equipped office setting, with the type of anesthesia that’s most appropriate for the process, and for your comfort. Because the actual surgery is generally performed in the mouth, it often leaves no visible traces. After the procedure, minor agony and swelling can be controlled by prescription drug. Delicate and soft foods might be suggested for a time frame following the procedure.

Jaw Reconstruction Techniques

General anesthesia enables specialists to perform jaw reconstruction successfully without automatic muscle development or grievances about minor agony. Before any osteotomy, third molars (astuteness teeth) are separated to decrease the possibility of contamination.
In jaw surgery, cutting one bone is known as an osteotomy while the medical procedure on two jaws is known as a bi-maxillary osteotomy (cutting the bone of the two jaws) or a maxillomandibular headway. Jaw reconstruction surgery is generally performed utilizing swaying and responding saws,  and manual etches. Responding saws are straight and are used for making straight bone cuts. Wavering saws are calculated, to various degrees, so that profound bended cuts for specific osteotomies like mandible edge decrease. The ongoing approach of piezoelectric saws has improved bone cutting, however, such hardware has not yet turned into the standard. The medical procedure may include one jaw or the two jaws concurrently. The adjustment is finished by making cuts into the bones of the mandible and maxilla, and position the cut pieces in the ideal arrangement. The medical procedure more often than not does not include cutting the skin.

Maxilla Osteotomy (upper jaw)

This procedure is planned for patients with an upper jaw deformation, or with an open chomp. Working on the upper jaw expects specialists to make entry points underneath both eye attachments, making it a two-sided osteotomy, empowering the entire upper jaw, alongside the top of the mouth and upper teeth, to move as one unit. As of now, the upper jaw can be moved and adjusted accurately so as to fit the upper teeth set up with the lower teeth. At that point, the jaw is balanced out utilizing titanium screws that will in the long run be become over by bone, for all time remaining in the mouth.

Mandible Osteotomy (bring down jaw)

The mandible osteotomy is proposed for those with a subsided mandible (bring down jaw) or an open chomp, which may cause trouble biting and jaw torment. For this procedure cuts are made behind the molars, in the middle of the first and second molars, and long wise, disengaging the front of the jaw so the sense of taste (counting the teeth and all) can move as one unit. From here, the specialist can easily slide the mandible into its new position. Adjustment screws are utilized to help the jaw until the point when the recuperating procedure is finished.

Sagittal Split Osteotomy

This procedure is utilized to address over an under bite. Initial, a flat cut is made on the internal side of the jaw bone, stretching out to the foremost segment of the rising jaw bone. As of now, a vertical slice is made stretching out sub-par compared to the body of the mandible, to the second rate outskirt of the mandible. All cuts are made into the center of the bone, where bone marrow is available. At that point, an etch is embedded into the previous cuts and tapped delicately in all zones to part the mandible of the left and right side. From here, the mandible can be moved either advances or in reverse. In the case of sliding in reverse, the distal fragment must be trimmed to give room so as to slide the mandible in reverse.

Fast Palatal Extension Osteotomy

At the point when a patient has a contracted (oval shape) maxilla, yet ordinary mandible, numerous orthodontists ask for a quick palatal extension. This comprises of the specialist making even cuts on the sidelong leading body of the maxilla, stretching out to the substandard fringe of the nasal pit. Preceding the procedure, the orthodontist has an orthopedic apparatus joined to the maxilla teeth, respectively, reaching out over the sense of taste with a connection so the specialist may utilize a hex-like screw to put into the gadget to push from foremost to back to begin spreading the hard sections.

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